By Mark Broadhurst proprietor of MB Developments
Is a tune just opening up the ports as big as possible, fitting big carbs and a noisy exhaust?
Is a tune making that one engine go faster at the expense of blowing up 100 yards down the road?
Or is it something else! I will try to explain!
There are so many ways to tune a Lambretta, these being the main engines I have tuned. The basic factory Lambretta has changed very little over the last fifty years. Lets face it, the top of the range and probably the most powerful was a GP200 at around 8 to 10 hp at the rear wheel, that was considered as a factory tuned engine. Today a modern 125 can be over 25+ Hp as standard! As you can see Scooters have been left behind.
A modern racing two-stroke has come on so much over the years it is already tuned from the factory even though they are mass-produced. A tuner then needs to do very little but to clean up the castings, ports and checking vital clearances, it's all been done for you. High spec Two strokes can get very complicated. What works on one engine might not work on another type of engine. You may do a modification that you are convinced will work only to find it doesnít!
Two Strokes can have a mind of their own at times. It takes a lot of what doesnít work to find out what does actually work, this can only come with experience.
Compared to a motor cycle engine a scooter engine needs that much more work to be done. Therefore scooter tuners need to go back to the basics and have some understanding of the two-stroke engine.
For this article I donít need to bore you with the workings of a two-stroke engine. There are plenty of books telling the theory of all different types of two strokes and how each work.
I donít confess to be the brightest man in the world, I failed miserably at Maths and English O levels getting unclassified results. In Art and Technical drawing, I gained, a grade A and B, I enjoyed those subjects! I found myself being more practical and good with my hands than with a pen. I struggled at Technical College all through my apprenticeship; hard work paid off and gained the higher technicianís certificate in motor vehicle technology. This is where I learned all the theoretical aspects of engineering but only briefly covering the basics of the two-stroke engine, for this I was self-taught by reading many books and experimenting.
So you donít have to be brains of Britain to become a tuner. But then again two stroke engines are not that simple and I find a little bit of common sense helps.
Who says what a tune is? There are no rules only other peoples opinions and ideas, these have been around as long as two strokes have.
If there are no rules then what is a stage tune? Different tuners have different ideas. A motorcycle experts idea would be different to that of a scooter experts idea of a tune.
Motorcycle tuners tend to have three basic tunes, stage 1 road tune, stage 2 road/ race tune, and stage 3 full race spec tune, what work occurs between each tune can vary from engine to engine, or who you talk to or what book you have read. This seems to be where scooter tuners have shot straight to stage 4 road tunes. It doesnít mean a stage 4-scooter tune is better or higher spec than a motor bike tune. Perhaps it suggests more stages of tuning to get to a similar spec of tune compared to a motorbikes engine tune!
Over the years Iíve seen scooter tuning getting to stage 8 and stage 9. This could be getting a ridiculous selling point! One opinion is when fitting a Japanese piston, a barrel suddenly becomes a stage 5. Why? You can fit a Japanese piston and still keep standard port timings, carb and exhaust with no extra speed! This doesnít seem to be a stage of tune but presumably a stage of reliability. Are they both connected?
In the Fifties and Sixties stage 1 and stage 2 seemed to be used, by 1980 only stage 4 was used, by the mid 1980s stage 5 and stage 6 had crept in. Nothing was mentioned of stage 1, 2 or 3 where did they go? So much confusion. Customers have being asking for a tune they havenít really wanted.
Let me try and put some sense to a scooter tune, but I must point out they are my ideas and may differ to other scooter dealers. There are so many ways to tune one cylinder I wonít go into much detail, that would turn this an article into a book. I base these on the amount of tunes done, listening to what the customer has required over the years and my own common sense.
1. STAGE ONE. Basically clean up ports, keep standard carb and exhaust.
2. STAGE TWO. Clean up ports, raise exhaust port slightly to increase port timings, use either standard or slightly larger carb, Standard or Clubman exhausts.
3. STAGE THREE. Lower inlet port slightly to increase port timings, raise exhaust port, flow transfer feeds. Increase carb to 22 Ė 26mm, Standard, Clubman or a touring expansion chamber.
4. STAGE FOUR. Increase inlet size and port timings to match to 28 Ė 30mm carb, raise, widen and open exhaust port to larger big bore gasket. Flow transfer ports. Use a clubman or touring expansion chamber.
5. STAGE FIVE. Increase inlet size and port timings to match to larger carb 30 Ė 34mm, increase exhaust port size and port timings to slightly larger than a stage 4, use a full expansion chamber.
6. STAGE SIX. As above but perhaps larger port timings to increase power higher up in the rev range, also increase size of transfer passages. Use 32 Ė 36mm carbs and full race spec expansions. (Usually classed as a full race tune.)
7. STAGE SEVEN. As per stage 6 but with a reed valve fitted and the extra work needed.
The above would be some kind of standard to say a 200cc stud pattern engine, 190cc and below would more likely run smaller carbs as it is harder to get reasonable port sizes. It is not uncommon to see engines with mismatched settings i.e.; a stage 6 cylinder with a standard carb and exhaust or a standard cylinder with a 34mm and expansion. Iím not saying they will not work but common sense says they might not set up as good in this way! Other factors come into the equation like cylinder head design and compression ratios, crankshafts, crankcase modifications, ignitions, clutches, gearboxes, clearances etc but are not too relevant to the STAGE of tune but to how the tune is to run.
To take a TS1 and use the same stages as above doesnít ring true, Compare a TS1 to a cast tune then you should compare it to a stage 7. A TS1 cylinder is classed as already tuned, but you could consider it as standard until touched by a porting tool! A TS1 is more like a modern day motorcycle cylinder so I drop back to motorcycle style tunes.
1. STAGE 1 ROAD TUNE. Polish ports, check clearances.
2. STAGE 2 ROAD / RACE. Widen and or raise exhaust port, flow inlet port, widen boost port, check clearances.
3. STAGE 3 FULL RACE SPEC TUNE. Widen and raise exhaust port, increase inlet size, widen boost port, increase transfer passages and check clearances.
Carb sizes vary upon application from 28mm to 39mm and you would expect to use a full expansion. Because a TS1 is made from alloy it opens up the possibility of exotic conversions, using iron liners, Re-nicasiling or Ceramic plating, Alloy welding to gain extra and increased port sizes along with Liquid Cooling can make a Lambretta cylinder look more like a motorcross cylinder! This then opens up Lambretta tuning to gain excess of 35HP. To my knowledge my 40HP race cylinder is still the highest ever gained by a Lambretta. With the extra conversions available to a TS1 I now set my own tunes to included Stage 4, 4a, 5, to help myself set a standard by all the extra work involved.
Letís give you an example: Stage 5 Honda 205 Lambretta conversion.
First we need a good 200cc barrel it can be any type for this purpose. It needs a bore smaller than the required piston. In this case the standard Honda piston is 67mm. Any barrel below 66.6mm would be ideal. Clean the gasket faces so as to bore it true, set it up in the boring bar and rebore it to slightly undersize allowing for a final hone after all the work is complete. A Honda piston has a smaller crown height than standard so the barrel needs machining. To do this we mount a mandrill in the lathe, it needs clocking by dial gauge to run true, when true we slide on the barrel bolt it tight and machine what ever amount of metal needs to come off the top and bottom.
Once the barrel is top and tailed the piston requires shortening as it is slightly too long and can lock up in the casing. Mark the piston, cut off the desired amount, linish the cut square, chamfer and polish the inside of the skirt. Place the piston on a dummy port timing jig (or engine set up to check port timings using a degree disc). Drop on the barrel, you can now turn the crankshaft and mark with a scriber each port in terms of port opening period and to keep the port edges horizontal.
This is a stage 5 tune, depending on who would tune it an inlet period of 150-160 degrees would be required, transfers 125-130 degrees, and an exhaust timing of 170-180 degrees. When a line for each port height has been scribed remove the cylinder to a vice, now the port widths need checking, working to an easy formula you can mark the exhaust width (very important). To do this, use an engineerís square working from the head gasket face. The width of the transfer and inlet port for this purpose is not too critical, but mark the ports to make sure the port edges will be vertical. Finally mark out the exhaust port to the gasket or exhaust flange size, in some cases an inlet manifold may require the inlet port to be marked in a similar way. We can now tune.
I started tuning with only a drill and a couple of cheap cutting tools, that was perfectly good enough for years and you can obtain some good results. As time went on and the demand for my services increased I had to find a quicker and easier way. A drill is not designed to cut large amounts of metal from a cylinder, it's for drilling. The tool for the job is called a die grinder these come in various sizes depending on the application used. I prefer electric tools and I have various tools to do a particular job. I use a die grinder, which is very heavy for roughing out large amounts, it has a variable speed switch and has a anti stalling device this revs to around 8,000 rpm. You have to hold on to this as it can send you and it around the barrel.
I use a high-speed lightweight die grinder that revs to around 25,000 rpm this comes in for all sorts of applications. One tool I have is invaluable, it is variable speed tool resembling a dentists tool, but much heavier duty. It has a separate foot control for the speed, a separate motor with a hanging flexy shaft on to which I can have five different tools to get into those supper hard places. This tool is usually used for the transfer ports along their passages and the entry into the cylinder.
Finally for polishing the ports, I prefer an old drill with a slotted rod in. I wrap emery cloth in this and use it for polishing. I now have over 150 mounted points to do the tuning work these can cost between £1 and £30 and donít last forever!
Tuning is not a clean or glamorous job, tuning without any eye or breathing apparatus is a mugs game.
Over the years Iíve used the lot glasses, goggles and masks, I have been to hospital to have metal removed from my eyes even wearing this equipment, believe me it hurts!
The only way to stop the problem was to spend £120 on a full-face respirator this kept my eyes and mouth separate and totally free from dust and the unexpected bit of metal travelling at 100 mph.
I wear overalls buttoned up! I use thick gloves and ear defenders, I might look a pillock but I donít care because it's my health.
In the summer it's horrible I wear shorts under the overalls and still you sweat for England, in the winter it's freezing cold with the cold air blowing around from the tools. Iron filings get everywhere and you dare not miss a bath that night. Tuning is hard work! Three tunes a day is about my limit, when you have done you are knackered! Its like a eight-hour work out!
Tuning is a case of using the correct tool for the job it is intended for.
I use the heavy roughing out tool to do the exhaust port and some of the inlet port, (occasionally I use a universal miller for heavy cutting to save time.)
The lightweight grinder will trim the transfer spigots, transfer feeds and inlet port. The flexy shaft tools clean and semi polish the transfers. (Tuning is like shading in picture, itís a lot of side to side movement but youíre taking metal off).
To give you an idea of what this entailed I have some boring facts;
As at January 2003 MB Developments has tuned over 1350 cylinder kits! So the above boring information is not up to date.
The above article hopefully gives you an insight into Lambretta tuning, it is not all of it by far, you may agree with me, and you may not. What I write is my point of view and ideas, 1200 cylinders might not be a record but I have done it and I have the proof! Tuned cylinders can be FAST, RELIABLE and FUN. Experience pays and I believe I have had that experience! Onto the next millennium.
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